The earliest part of the Iron Age in northwestern Germany and southern Jutland was dominated by the Jastorf culture.Early Scandinavian iron production typically involved the harvesting of bog iron.
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In Central Europe, the prehistoric Iron Age ends with the Roman conquest.
From the Hallstatt culture, the Iron Age spreads westwards with the Celtic expansion from the 6th century BC.
In the British Isles, the British Iron Age lasted from about 800 BC until the Roman Conquest and until the 5th century in non-Romanised parts.
Structures dating from this time are often impressive, for example the brochs and duns of northern Scotland and the hill forts that dotted the islands.
The Etruscan Iron Age was then ended with the rise and conquest of the Roman Republic, which conquered the last Etruscan city of Velzna in 265 BC.
The 'Celtic' culture had expanded to the group of islands of northwest Europe (Insular Celts) and Iberia (Celtiberians, Celtici and Gallaeci).In the Greek Dark Ages, there was a widespread availability of edged weapons of iron, but a variety of explanations fits the available archaeological evidence. The Greeks adapted the system, notably introducing characters for vowel sounds and thereby creating the first truly alphabetic (as opposed to abjad) writing system.From around 1200 BC, the palace centres and outlying settlements of the Mycenaean culture began to be abandoned or destroyed, and by 1050 BC, the recognisable cultural features (such as Linear B script) had disappeared. As Greece sent out colonies eastwards, across the Black Sea, and westwards towards Sicily and Italy (Pithekoussae, Cumae), the influence of their alphabet extended further.The Scandinavian peninsula, Finland and Estonia show sophisticated iron production from c. Metalworking and Ananyino culture pottery co-occur to some extent.Another iron ore used was ironsand (such as red soil).The early Iron Age forms of Scandinavia show no traces of Roman influence, though these become abundant toward the middle of the period.