The city was conquered by Muslim forces in 713 and conquered by Christian forces under Alfonso VI of Castile in 1083.
There are remnants of prehistoric cultures in the area.
The village was founded by the Celts as a ford of the Tagus.
During the 15th and 16th centuries, Talavera achieved great recognition, thanks to its pottery.
Wonderful pieces of pottery and Talavera tiles are found in the main museums of the world and in the most luxurious palaces all over Europe.
The beginning of the 16th century saw the release of the most important theater work in Spanish literature, The Tragicomedy of Calixto and Melibea, or Celestina, written by the Talaverian mayor Fernando de Rojas.
During this century the city lived in a golden age of arts and culture.
In this period Talavera de la Reina was a rich city with cattle markets and commercial exchange.
Christianity came early to the city, and with the fall of the Western Roman Empire the Visigoths established in the city. In the year 602, King Liuva II made a present to the city: the sculpture of the Virgin Mary, who was from then to the present day the symbol of the Christians in Talavera de la Reina, and the substitute for the goddess Ceres. They also brought the use of fountains, water mills and new products brought from Africa and Asia.
Caesarobriga served as an important center for agriculture and ceramics in the 3rd and 4th centuries BCE During the Visigothic period, Talavera reverted to a variant of its Celtiberian name: Elbora or Ebora.
Its modern name is derived from Talabayra, the Muslim rendering of this Visigothic name.
Talaverian people participated in the conquest of America, like Francisco de Aguirre, Juan de Orellana and Jofrén de Loaisa.