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A provisional Mass, which I will call Liturgical Reform 1.0, was rolled out in 1965.

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The reforms went a long way toward increasing lay participation in the Eucharist, but the Vatican was hesitant in allowing adaptations of the liturgy to local cultures.

The two most significant adaptations were for India at the end of the 1960’s and for Zaire in 1972.

As time went on, the reform movement experienced growing opposition in the Vatican and eventually a hostile takeover by those, including Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, who felt the reforms had gone too far.

Archbishop Annibale Bugnini, who had spearheaded the reforms, was exiled from Rome and made nuncio to Iran in 1976, where he celebrated Christmas Mass for the hostages in the American embassy.

In 2014, he appointed Cardinal Robert Sarah as prefect of the Vatican Congregation for Divine Worship.

The cardinal supports the reform of the reform and has even been promoting Masses where the priest faces east, with his back to the people. Francis had earlier closed down the office Sarah had headed in the Roman Curia and Francis felt he needed to give him a job. When the council of cardinals advising the pope asked bishops what issues they thought should be handled by bishops’ conferences rather than the Vatican, the almost universal response was liturgical translations.

9 Pope Francis gave more authority to national bishops’ conferences in determining liturgical translations and adaptations.

He did this in a letter entitled "Magnum Principium" or "The Great Principle." The reform of the liturgy was the most visible effect of the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), which assembled all the Catholic bishops of the world to update the church.

There was no question that Pope Paul VI, like Bill Gates, was in charge.

Granted the challenges faced by the reformers, Liturgical Reform 2.0 was an extraordinary achievement.

It was as if Microsoft had decided to bring back DOS.

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