Throughout, we have a concern for the quality of primary trials and the quality of the reviews.
From these behavioural and cognitive beginnings, varieties of treatment have been developed and tested; most of these fall broadly under the rubric of CBT.
Today, it is perhaps easier to think of CBT as a broad family of therapies that share the same roots but have different strengths and applications.
Patients' reactions to both acute and persistent pain can be understood in terms of normal psychological processes.
We do not have to invoke pathological explanations.
Psychological interventions are a mainstay of modern pain management practice and a recommended feature of a modern pain treatment service.
Systematic reviews for the evidence of psychological interventions are reviewed in this article.
Finally, given the reality of pain practice, and inconsistent access to psychology expertise, we discuss good psychological practice for the non-psychologist.
Psychology is concerned with the prediction and control of behaviour.
The evidence for effectiveness is strongest for cognitive behavioural therapy with a focus on cognitive coping strategies and behavioural rehearsal.