The city began to be known as Peshāwar by the era of Emperor Akbar, a name which is traditionally said to have been given by Akbar himself.
or more literally, "forward city," though transcription errors and linguistic shifts may also account for the city's new name.
In 986–87 CE, Peshawar's first encounter with Muslim armies occurred when Sabuktigin invaded the area and fought the Hindu Shahis under their king, Anandpal.
and established rule of the Ghaznavid Empire in the Peshawar region.
near the city of Patna in the modern-day Indian state of Bihar.
As Mauryan power declined, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom based in modern Afghanistan declared its independence from the Seleucid Empire, and quickly seized ancient Peshawar around 190 BCE.
Akbar's bibliographer, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, lists the city's name by both its former name Parashāwar, transcribed in Persian as پَرَشاوَر, Following Alexander's conquest, the Valley of Peshawar came under suzerainty of Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Empire.
A locally-made vase fragment that was found in Peshawar depicts a scene from Sophocles' play Antigone.
The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi noted that by the mid 10th century, the city had become known as Parashāwar.
After the Ghaznavid invasion, the city's name was again noted to be Parashāwar by Al-Biruni.
The golden age of the Kushan empire in Peshawar ended in 232 CE with the death of the last great Kushan king, Vasudeva I.