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Today, lithium-ion is the fastest growing and most promising battery chemistry.

Pioneer work with the lithium battery began in 1912 under G. Lewis but it was not until the early 1970s when the first non-rechargeable lithium batteries became commercially available.

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The polymer electrolyte replaces the traditional porous separator, which is soaked with electrolyte.

The dry polymer design offers simplifications with respect to fabrication, ruggedness, safety and thin-profile geometry.

The battery frequently fails after two or three years.

It should be noted that other chemistries also have age-related degenerative effects.

Aging is a concern with most lithium-ion batteries and many manufacturers remain silent about this issue.

Some capacity deterioration is noticeable after one year, whether the battery is in use or not.

Because of the inherent instability of lithium metal, especially during charging, research shifted to a non-metallic lithium battery using lithium ions.

Although slightly lower in energy density than lithium metal, lithium-ion is safe, provided certain precautions are met when charging and discharging.

Manufacturers are constantly improving lithium-ion. New and enhanced chemical combinations are introduced every six months or so.

With such rapid progress, it is difficult to assess how well the revised battery will age.

These cells come at a higher cost in terms of stored energy.

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