A study of men in Vietnam found that 36.6% of participants perpetrated some form of violence against their partners, mostly due to gendered social learning in their childhood.Violence during pregnancy is another aspect of intimate partner violence that is connected to gender asymmetry.
Another report by the US department of Justice on non-fatal domestic violence from 2003–2012 found that 76 percent of domestic violence was committed against women and 24 percent were committed against men.
According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the percent of victims killed by their spouses or ex-spouses were 77.4 percent women and 22.6 percent men in selected countries across Europe.
Other mental health consequences are anxiety, substance abuse, and low-self esteem.
A 2014 study on the mental health effects of intimate partner terrorism found that 42% of women reported thoughts of suicide and 31% had attempted it.
Researchers have also found different outcomes in men and women in response to intimate partner violence.
A 2012 review from the journal Psychology of Violence found that women suffered over-proportionate number of injuries, fear, and posttraumatic stress as a result of partner violence.According to the National Violence Against Women Survey, women experience more intimate partner violence than men: 22.1 percent of surveyed women were assaulted by a partner, compared with 7.4 percent of surveyed men.Globally, men's perpetration of intimate partner violence against women often stems from conceptions of masculinity and patriarchy.The most common but less injurious form of intimate partner violence is "situational couple violence" (also known as "situational violence"), which is conducted by individuals of both genders nearly equally, Intimate partner violence occurs between two people in an intimate relationship.It may occur between heterosexual or homosexual couples and victims can be male or female.In such cases, "[o]ne partner, usually a man, controls virtually every aspect of the victim's, usually a woman's, life." Johnson reported in 2001 that 97% of the perpetrators of intimate terrorism were men.