No apparent change was observed in vasculature between pre- and post-PCB in those patients receiving PCB in the middle of hysteroscopy.
The procedure was usually carried out without anaesthesia, but occasionally a paracervical block (PCB) of 10 ml 1% lidocaine was necessary.
Lidocaine is not thought to have vaso-constrictive or dilative effects.
The endometrium of the secretory phase is morphologically and functionally well-prepared for implantation and the early development of the fertilized ovum.
The maturation process of the endometrium is mediated by ovarian sex steroid hormones.
submucosal leiomyomata, uterine anomalies and anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome, were excluded from the study.
Three patients were lost to follow-up after conception. Hysteroscopy was scheduled in a menstrual cycle not manipulated with any hormonal agents.
After completion of the examination, endometrial biopsy was performed in 32 patients who agreed to the procedure. The specimens biopsied in 32 patients were submitted to conventional light microscopic examination to compare the observed hysteroscopic findings with histology of the endometrium.
Hysteroscopic findings were observed and diagnosed by more than three gynaecologists, including the authors (H. Post-ovulatory day of the cycle was specified by one of the authors (K.
In this context, it was felt to be of interest whether or not the hysteroscopic appearance of the endometrium is associated with early pregnancy loss as well as with implantation failure of fertilized ovum.
The aims of the present study using hysteroscopic assessment of the mid-secretory phase endometrium were: (i) to explore whether or not there is a relationship between hysteroscopic findings and early phase pregnancy outcome after implantation; and (ii) to compare endoscopic findings with histological and endocrinological backgrounds.
There were no clinical differences between these two groups, except that the frequency of patients with a history of early abortion was significantly higher in the `poor' group (25.5%) than in the `good' group (8.1%) ( 0.05).