In response to the first destruction, on 21 October 2015, Creative Commons started the New Palmyra project, an online repository of three-dimensional models representing the city's monuments; the models were generated from images gathered, and released into the public domain, by the Syrian internet advocate Bassel Khartabil between 20.
Palmyra's wealth enabled the construction of monumental projects, such as the Great Colonnade, the Temple of Bel, and the distinctive tower tombs.
The Palmyrenes were a mix of Amorites, Arameans, and Arabs.
During the Syrian Civil War in 2015, Palmyra came under the control of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), and subsequently changed hands several times between the militant group and the Syrian Army who retook the city on 2 March 2017.
ISIL sabotaged many artifacts and destroyed a number of buildings, considerably damaging the ancient site.
Occasionally and rarely, members of the Palmyrene families took Greek names while ethnic Greeks were few; the majority of people with Greek names, who did not belong to one of the city's families, were freed slaves.
Even the four tribes ceased to be important by the third century as only one inscription mentions a tribe after the year 212; instead, aristocrats played the decisive role in the city's social organization.
In July 2017, the discoverer of Ebla, Paolo Matthiae, speaking in the "Faces of Palmyra" ("I Volti de Palmyra") exhibition in Aquileia, said that: "The archaeological site of Palmyra is a vast field of ruins and only 20-30% of it is seriously damaged.
Unfortunately these included important parts, such as the Temple of Bel, while the Arc of Triumph can be rebuilt." He added: "In any case, by using both traditional methods and advanced technologies, it might be possible to restore 98% of the site".
The Palmyrenes converted to Christianity during the fourth century and to Islam in the centuries following the conquest by the Rashidun Caliphate, after which the Palmyrene and Greek languages were replaced by Arabic.