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of plant tissues, similar to benign tumors or warts in animals.

Plant galls are often highly organized structures and because of this the cause of the gall can often be determined without the actual agent being identified.

This applies particularly to some insect and mite plant galls. In human pathology, a gall is a raised sore on the skin, usually caused by chafing or rubbing.

A high-quality ink has long been made from the Aleppo gall, found on oaks in the Middle East.

The Talmud, records using gallnuts as part of the tanning process as well as a dye-base for ink.

Gall-inducing insects include gall wasps, gall midges, gall flies, Agromyzidae aphids (such as Melaphis chinensis, Pemphigus spyrothecae, and Pemphigus betae), scale insects, goldenrod gall fly, and psyllids.

Various galls produced by insects and mites are listed below: Many rust fungi induce gall formation, including western gall rust, which infects a variety of pine trees and cedar-apple rust.

The meristems, where plant cell division occurs, are the usual sites of galls, though insect galls can be found on other parts of the plant, such as the leaves, stalks, branches, buds, roots, and even flowers and fruits.

Gall-inducing insects are usually species-specific and sometimes tissue-specific on the plants they gall.

The causal agent was transmitted by Nephotettix nigropictus after an incubation of two weeks.

Polyhedral particles of 65 nm diameter in the cytoplasm of phloem cells were always associated with the disease.

Symptoms consisted of gall formation along leaf blades and sheaths, dark green discoloration, twisted leaf tips and reduced numbers of tillers.

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