The geology of the region indicates that the most feasible major primary source for the beach sand heavy minerals are the Permian granitic rocks.
The fact that zircon of very similar size and appearance to the beach sand zircon is common in the six Permian granitic samples, and that rutile, ilmenite, magnetite, monazite, tourmaline, cassiterite, epidote, hornblende, sphene, and some pink garnet are also present is confirmatory evidence.
In thin sections of these basalts the iron ore has been found to occur in granules and in rods, the latter averaging 0.4 mm. It will be recalled that Tertiary volcanics, particularly those of basic composition, are very extensively developed in certain parts of the area, while evidence indicates that they formerly covered a much greater area than at present. The weight percentage of heavy minerals in the eight samples of Mesozoic freshwater sandstone varies from less than 0.1% to as much as 1.5%, and is highest in the Clarence Series sandstones.
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The pacific gravity of the monazite from Tugun beach sand is 5.19. Size of Openings in Millimetres X X ^ X O X O’X w h =Very abundant; a = Abundant ; C = Very common ; c=Common ; s = Scarce ; S— Very scarce. — “ Manual of Sedimentary Petrography.” Appleton-Century Co., New York.
Inclusions are rare, and where present they appear mainly to be gas-filled cavities. — “ The Principles that regulate the Distribution of Particles of Heavy Minerals in Sedimentary Rocks, as illustrated by the Sandstones of North-east Scotland.” Trans.
The heavy essential minerals are biotite and hornblende.
In four of the rocks (the more acidic), zircon is by far the most abundant mineral in the non-magnetic, heavy mineral fraction.
Pneumatolytic minerals such as tourmaline, monazite, topaz, cassiterite and anatase are also lacking from the heavy mineral assemblage. 92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF QUEENSLAND They were the Burleigh Head andesitic basalt (sample K) and the Indian Head basalt (sample L).
Table IV shows that the index-figures for these rocks are high.
They occur more in the acidic samples, tourmaline and monazite being the most widespread.
The presence of pink garnet (almandine) in sample H from Stanthorpe is suggestive of rock assimilation and contamination near the margin of the batholith.
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