While for reasons of group solidarity and male honour few migrants spoke openly of the undoubted sufferings of migration, popular singers such as Cheikh El-Hasnaoui lamented exile, hence providing a conduit for such feelings.
Algerians worked in coal- mining, iron, steel and in car manufacture, and were concentrated in Marseilles, Lyons, St.
Étienne, Lille and the industrial east around Strasbourg in addition to Paris and its suburbs.
Algerian nationalists in the National Liberation Front (FLN, ) turned the structural colonial economic inequalities between colony and metropolis to their advantage by funding the majority of their military campaigns against the French state through regular taxes forcibly raised on Algerians in France.
This was only possible once a bloody internecine war amongst rival Algerian nationalist groups had been waged in Paris, Lyons and Lille during 1957-58.
(4) However, until 1962, Algerian nationalist organizations enjoyed what Mohammed Harbi has called a 'conflictual alliance' at best with the organized French left, given the latter's suspicion of Islam and Arab nationalism and ambiguous stance on empire.
(5) Before 1945, Algerian migration was almost exclusively male.
The migration of colonised Arab-Berbers from Algeria to mainland France was the earliest and the most extensive of all colonial migrations to Western Europe before the 1960s.
Initiated in the late nineteenth century, accelerated by the presence of Algerians in French factories and the army during World War I, male labour migration became an established component of the colonial economy from the early 1920s.
In response to the nationalists, huge police identity-check operations - that had started in the early 1950s - rounded up literally thousands of people on the street whom officers judged to be of 'Algerian' appearance.
Repressive policing tactics in France and news of atrocities in Algeria, structural discrimination in the workplace, and a sustained attempt to forcibly assimilate migrants all reinforced Algerians' resistance to colonial rule and led to their support for the FLN.
However, Algerians continued to arrive in France, reaching the 100,000 mark in 1924 and never again going below that figure except during World War II.