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Through these endowments, personal income could be set aside for schools or other charitable purposes.

His mother was Zeynep, the daughter of the "Ayan of Kavala" Çorbaci Husain Agha.

When his father died at a young age, Muhammad was taken and raised by his uncle with his cousins.

4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.

Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres that he instituted. The dynasty that he established would rule Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt and Sudan until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.

In practice, Muhammad Ali's land reform amounted to a monopoly on trade in Egypt.

He required all producers to sell their goods to the state.

To accomplish this, Muhammad Ali 'nationalized' all the iltizam lands of Egypt, thereby officially owning all the production of the land.

He accomplished the state annexation of property by raising taxes on the 'tax-farmers' who had previously owned the land throughout Egypt.

The new taxes were intentionally high and when the tax-farmers could not extract the demanded payments from the peasants who worked the land, Muhammad Ali confiscated their properties.

The other major source of revenue Muhammad Ali created was a new tax on waqf endowments, which were previously tax-free.

Muhammad Ali transformed Egypt into a regional power which he saw as the natural successor to the decaying Ottoman Empire.

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